Terms and Definitions

The section is a list of terms and their definitions on the market of domain names and Internet in general.
Registrant — an individual or organization that registers a specific domain name. Registrant defines rules for using the domain, is responsible for choosing the domain name, possible third-party rights violation while choosing the domain name and using it. The risk of losses due to such violations is also entirely carried out by domain name registrant.
Domain name administration — defining the rules and regulations for domain use, providing back-end services and logistics related to domain use. These functions are carried out by domain name registrant.
Cancellation of registration (domain name release) — excluding domain name entry and information regarding its registrant from the register.
Domain name delegation — entering the information on domain name and corresponding DNS servers into the root servers of the top-level domain. This allows domain name functioning and its accessibility in the Internet. Domain name delegation is only possible during the time when domain name registration is active.
Domain name length — a number of characters that comprise the domain name (without top-level domain identifier - e.g. without .LV).

According to Terms and conditions of domain names registration in .LV a traditional domain name shall be expressed in Latin characters (case insensitive), numbers and hyphen "-". The domain name length should not be shorter than 2 and longer than 63 characters. The hyphen "-" may not be used at the beginning and at the end of the domain name. Non-Latin letters may be substituted with the respective Latin character. Special characters, spaces, and punctuations shall be eliminated or replaced with the hyphen. In the Latvian domain name at least one letter with a diacritical mark (ā, ē, ī, ū, ō, ķ, ļ, ņ, ŗ, ģ, š, č, ž) shall be used.

Domain (domain name) — area (string) in the hierarchical space of the Internet domain names system marked with a unique domain name. A domain name can be reached by means of domain name servers (DNS) and is administrated by a registrant. Each domain name can have only one registrant.
Expiring domain name — a domain name with registration expiring on a certain date.
DNS (Domain Name System) — a system that transforms domain names into IP addresses, and vice versa. In its core, DNS is a distributed hierarchical database. Having the server name, DNS can obtain physical server address, and the same process also works backwards. To make a server accessible by its domain name, a corresponding entry about the latter should be present in at least two DNS servers – Primary DNS and Secondary DNS; this way, the entire DNS structure is fail-safe.
DNS zone — a part of DNS database related to a certain domain. Most often, a zone is a top-level domain – i.e. .RU zone, .COM zone, .NET zone, etc.
DNS server — a server that keeps entries on one or several DNS zones and processes DNS queries. Primary DNS is a zone-specific DNS server that keeps full set of entries related to a certain TLD. Secondary DNS is zone-specific too: it obtains required information about a certain zone from another DNS server. A set of DNS servers is required in order for a domain to function in the global network.
Registrants geography Report — shows geographic distribution of domain name registrants. Country and regional breakdowns can be viewed in this section of the portal.
Domain names geography Report — shows data on the geographical distribution of the domain names. The territory where the domain ’belongs’ is defined by the user or the registrant’s address.
Development of number of domain names Report — contains information on new domain name registrations, domain cancelations and growth or decline during a certain period.
Development of number of domain names by registrars Report — shows data on domain name growth from each registrar’s domain pool as well as percentage breakdown between registrars.
Renewal rates Report — contains data on domain names that have been renewed for a certain period, as well as on expiring domain names that have been renewed.
Renewal rates by registrars Report — contains data on renewed domains distributed by registrars as well as renewal rates of each registrar’s domain names.
Registrar change dynamics Report — shows data on each registrar’s domain names transfer in absolute numbers.
Domain name length Report — has data on average domain name length in .LV. More information on domain name length can be found in the corresponding glossary entry.
Total number of registrants Report — contains information on number of registrants. This data can be used to determine an average number of domain names per registrant. More information on how domains are distributed between the registrants can be found in Domain names by registrars report.
Total number of domain names Report — has data on overall numbers of registered and delegated second-level domain names.
Registrants by registrars Report — has data on the number of registrants for each registrar, as well as total percentage of registrants for each registrar.
Active domain names by Registrars Report — has data on numbers and percentages of active domain names for each registrar.
Domain names by registrant type — has data on percentages of legal entities and individuals among domain name registrants. The report can be useful to judge the percentage of business involvement in domaining and the presence of businesses in the internet.
Domains by registrants Report — contains data on registered domain names percentage split between the domain registrants. This report shows the percentage of registrants that have only one domain name registered as well as percentage of registrants that own numerous domain names.
Domain names age Report — contains data on domain name lifespan, starting from the registration date. This report shows the date when the domain name was placed in the register, not the date of the initial registration request. If the domain name was deleted from the register and then placed in the register again, the last date counts. The ‘Domain age’ parameter is counted in years, starting from the registration date. The chart represents the lifespan of the domain in full years (0 is less than a year, 1 equals one or more year, but less than 2 years, 2 equals 2 years or more, but less than 3 years, etc).
Domains by registrars Report — shows domain names percentage split between the accredited registrars.
Individuals and legal entities by Registrars Report — has data on each registrar’s percentages of individual and legal entity domain registrants. This report can show B2B and B2C market involvement data for each registrar.
Domain names usage Report — has information on domain usage objectives. The usage objective is determined via site response to a standard HTTP query. The parameters considered in this report are: ability (or inability) to retrieve an IP address for the domain; if the site page opens when accessing the domain name or if the user is being redirected to another domain.

The following procedure is used to generate the domain usage report:

  1. The delegated domain names are selected for further analysis, with other domain names falling into ‘Not delegated’ category.
  2. The IP address is determined for each of the delegated domain names; the domain names that fail to provide the IP address are placed into ‘Not identified’ category.
  3. With the IP address obtained, the system checks it for known parked addresses, and assigns ‘Parked’ status if matches. If not the system sends HTTP query to the server. The responses are collected and analyzed. Possible scenarios are:

    1. OK response: the site exists and is functioning. If main page of site contains no or only 1 link to pages in same domain, it falls into ‘Promo’ category. Otherwise the domain is placed into the ‘Website’ category.
    2. Any HTTP error or connection error: the site is not responding at the moment. The domain is placed into the ‘Error’ category.
    3. HTTP redirection: if the address is in another domain (e.g. the query sent to example.ru is redirected to example.com), the domain is placed in the ‘Redirect‘ category. If the address is in the same domain (e.g. the query sent to example.ru is redirected to photos.example.ru), another query is sent to the latter domain. The resulting response falls into one of the initial categories (e.g. HTTP OK, HTTP error, redirection, etc.). A domain cannot redirect the query for more than three times in a row: if the redirections continue after that, the domain is placed into the ‘Redirect’ category.
  4. The domains that were not checked (i.e. were registered, but still have to be put into report database) as well as these domain names that failed to respond to a HTTP query in 10 minutes are placed into ‘Not determined’ category.
Domain name re-registration — is the same as domain renewal, i.e. entering the data on domain name renewal for one year into the register.
Registration blockage period — the period after the termination of the registration validity period up to its cancellation or the domain name re-registration. During this period, a domain should be renewed, or its registration will be canceled after 30 calendar days. The registrant cannot perform any actions other than renewal during this period.
Domain names growth — is a change in the number of domain names. The growth factor is based on: 1) difference between the number of domain names at the end of a certain period and the same number at the end of previous period; 2) difference between the number of new registrations made during a certain period and the number of deleted domain names during the same period. The growth can be either positive or negative depending on whether more domain names were deleted or registered during the said period.
Domain name renewal — is the extension of the domain name validity period for one year. A registrant can send the request for domain extension no earlier than in two months before domain expires. Domain use can also be renewed when a domain is blocked.
Registrar — a person which has signed the agreement with the Registry and provides domain name registration services by registering domain names on behalf of the domain name holder.
Domain name registration — is adding data about the domain name and its registrant to the register according to the applicant’s request. This procedure is performed by the registrar. The register keeps data about the domain for one year, and each year, the domain can be renewed for one more year.
Reserved domain name — is a domain of any level registered for a certain period and backed up by a provider without any virtual server support.
Register — is a central domain database containing information on domain names currently registered, its registrants, and all other information required to support the domains.
Server ( ) — is a dedicated computer or other device in the network with its resources used by different users. The server provides access to shared resources in the network, i.e. files and printers.
Registrant transfer — is an action performed by the current domain name holder or establishment of a certain fact resulting in the transition of the right to use the domain name to another person.
Registrar transfer — is transfer of the domain support obligations to another registrar.
Sub-domain ( ) — a complementary domain of 3rd (sometimes 4th, 5th, etc.) level that can point to root directory of the site or to any other directory at the server.
Domain name cancellation — is a procedure of voiding the domain registration
IDN (Internationalized Domain Names) — are certain domain names that contain symbols of national alphabets. The domain name tūdaliņ.lv is an example of an IDN.
IP address — is a numerical address containing information on physical web site location in the internet. The IP address can also consist of HEX characters if IPv6 is used.
TLD (Top Level Domain) — is a top-level domain based in root zone. .com, .net, .org and other country codes (e.g. .ru, .lv) are all TLDs.
gTLD (generic Top-Level Domain) — is a generic domain created for certain businesses or communities. gTLDs can have certain registration restrictions.

First seven gTLDs – still widely used in global network – have appeared in January 1985:

  • .com for commercial sites;
  • .edu for educational sites;
  • .gov for US government structures;
  • .mil for US military structures;
  • .net for companies that work in network-related markets;
  • .org for nonprofit organizations;
  • .int for international organizations.

Five general top-level domains that have no restrictions are .com, .net, .org, .info and .biz, and there are over 10 domains targeted on various business and social spheres.

The forementioned domains can be used everywhere by any company or person.

ccTLD (Country Code Top Level Domain) — is a two-letter domain reserved for or used by a certain country. Examples include .lv for Latvia, .ru for Russia or .de for Germany. The domain is usually selected to comlpy with international country code used in global DNS system.
Alias ( ) — is an additional domain name pointing at a certain site in global network. An user can access the same site by typing any of its aliases in the browser. Using both yourdomain.com and www.yourdomain.com is a popular example of internet aliases: two different domains (usually) link to the same page.
WHOIS — is a core database containing all domain name and IP address registrations. Each registrar is usually responsible for maintaining its own WHOIS database.

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